Lucknow. Lucknow, the capital of the country’s most populous state, Uttar Pradesh, is one of the most famous cities in India. It was once known as the City of Nawabs. The cuisine here, the historical buildings have their own identity across the country. Apart from this, in the field of politics too, this city has made great achievements. Lucknow, situated on the banks of river Gomti, has also been a witness to many important events in Indian history.
If you are an old resident of Lucknow or here, then you can also call Nakhlau with love. The Nawabs of Awadh populated this city with great pride. The signs of his every hobby are scattered here. Hidden in the labyrinth of Bada Imambara is the story of Nawab Asaf-ud-Daula, when he started building it to help the public during the famine. At every turn in Lucknow, the buildings of that era are standing blocking the way. Chhota Imambara, Rumi Darwaza, Chhatar Manzil, Residency, Baradari, Dilkusha, Shahnajaf Imambara, many such wonderful monuments give a different identity to Lucknow.
There is a famous saying in India ‘Banaras ki morning, Awadh ki evening’. ‘Awadh’ means Lucknow, and Lucknow is a city that is world famous for its manners, tastes and tastes. On one hand this city stands for the pride of its historical buildings, while on the other hand it is also decorated with new crafts. If you will get Awadhi language here, then English too, Hindi too, Urdu too. This is where the sweetness dissolves in the Hindi language.
To understand any city, first we have to look at its history. The ancient history of Lucknow is not found much. The expansion of this city is known only after the medieval period, because in the Hindu period, Ayodhya had a special importance. The discussion of Lucknow is not found much. First of all, during the time of Mughal emperor Akbar, the Akbari Darwaza located in the square was built. Even in the times of Jahangir and Shah Jahan, buildings were built here, but the real progress of Lucknow took place during the Nawabi period.
The Nawabi tradition, which started from 1720, was in
fact the Mughal Empire of Delhi started disintegrating during the time of Muhammad Shah. In 1720 AD, Saadat Khan, the Subedar of Awadh, established his sultanate in Lucknow and it is from here that the tradition of the Nawabs of Shia Muslims is considered to be beginning. After this, Lucknow was ruled by Safdarjung, Shuja-ud-daula, Ghaziuddin Haider, Naseeruddin Haider, Muhammad Ali Shah and the popular Nawab Wajid Ali Shah.
from Faizabad to Lucknow was brought from Faizabad to Lucknow during the time of Nawab Asaf-ud-Daula (1795-1797 AD). Asaf-ud-Daula built Bara Imambara, Rumi Darwaza and Asafi Masjid in Lucknow. Most of these buildings were built to pay wages to the famine victims. Many other famous buildings, markets and doors were built during the time of Asaf-ud-Daula, in which Daulatkhana, Residency, Bibiyapur Kothi, Chowk Bazaar are prominent.
then during the time of Saadat Ali Khan, Dilkush Mahal, Belly Garad Darwaza and Lal Baradari were built. Similarly Ghaziuddin Haider built Moti Mahal, Mubarak Manzil tombs of Saadat Ali and Khurshidzadi, famous Chhatar Manzil and Shahnajaf Imambara during Naseeruddin Haider’s time, Muhammad Alishah built Imambara of Hussainabad, Bari Jama Masjid and Baradari of Hussainabad and last Nawab Wajid Ali Shah built Built the huge and grand Kaiser Bagh of Lucknow.
In 1856 AD , involved in the first freedom struggle of 1857, the British abolished the princely state of Awadh by dethroning Wajid Ali Shah and included it in British India. Lucknow made its mark in the first freedom struggle of 1857. Here the people occupied many buildings including the Residency, but later the British re-occupied here and after that the soldiers of the freedom struggle were punished severely.
The story of the name UP and the capital changed from Allahabad to Lucknow. In 1902, the name of the North West Province was changed to the United Provinces of Agra and Oudh. From here, in common parlance, United Provinces came to be called UP. In 1920, the British shifted the capital of UP from Allahabad to Lucknow. After independence, on 12 January 1950, its name was changed to Uttar Pradesh and Lucknow became its capital. At the same time, the High Court of Uttar Pradesh remained Allahabad and the Bench of the High Court was established in Lucknow.
Barabanki district is on the eastern side of this city, Unnao district on the western side and Rae Bareli district in the south. To its north are Sitapur and Hardoi districts. The Gomti river passes through the middle of Lucknow. It divides the city into two parts, one is the main city, the other is the Transgomati area.
Population and Literacy Status
According to the 2011 census, the population of Lucknow is about 46 lakhs. Of these, males are about 24 lakhs and females are 22 lakhs. Talking about male-female ratio, there are 917 females out of 1000 males. 77.29 percent of the city’s population is literate, in which the literacy rate of males is about 83 percent, while that of females is about 72 percent.
Lucknow, about 77 percent of the population is Hindu, while Muslims are 21.46 percent here. Sikhs are around 0.52 % and Christians are 0.45 %. Apart from these, there is also a small population of Bengali, South Indian, Buddhist and Jain.
Lucknow has a hot semi-tropical climate. Here cold dry winters last from December to February and dry hot summers from April to June. The rainy season lasts from mid-June to mid-September. Here the effect of southwest monsoon winds remains.
Major Bazaar The
Chowk market in Old Lucknow is one of the oldest in Lucknow. It is famous for chicken artisans and markets. Chicken of Lucknow is exported to many cities of the country as well as abroad. There is also Nakhas Bazaar in the square. Apart from this Aminabad is situated in the middle of the old city. In today’s time, the most discussed is the Hazratganj market of Lucknow. It is somewhat like Connaught Place in Delhi. The state legislative building is also located here.
Apart from this, GPO, Cathedral Church, Zoo, Divisional Railway Office (DRM Office) of Northern Railway, Lalbagh, Postmaster General Office (PMG), Parivartan Chowk, Begum Hazrat Mahal Park are also important places in Hazratganj. Apart from these major markets, Alambagh, Nishatganj, Daliganj, Sadar Bazar, Bangla Bazar, Narhi, Kaiserbagh also come in the big markets here.
expansion into new areas
Talking about new areas, Vikas Nagar, Bhootnath Bazar in Indiranagar, Patrakarpuram in Gomtinagar, Ashiana Bazar etc. are prominent. The residential areas here include Rajajipuram, Krishnanagar, Alambagh, Dilkusha, RDSO, Aishbagh, Hussainganj, Lalbagh, Rajendranagar, Malviya Nagar, Sarojininagar, Haiderganj, Thakurganj, Saadatganj etc. On the other hand, Gomtipar areas i.e. Trans-Gomti area have Gomtinagar, Indiranagar, Mahanagar, Aliganj, Daliganj, Neelmatha Cantt, Vikasnagar, Khurramnagar, Jankipuram, Sharda Nagar and South-City (on Rae Bareli Road) residential areas.
Various shopping malls, residential complexes and commercial complexes are popping up in the city. Country’s big builders Parsvnath, DLF, Omaxe, Sahara, Unitech etc. are investors here.
Among the emerging areas here, the area around Gomti Nagar, Sultanpur Road, Shaheed Path, are prominent. Among the big private hospitals, Sahara Hospital, Medanta etc. are established.
Mainly this city is considered to be a city of people with jobs. Being the center of the UP government, there are headquarters of all the departments here. There is also a unit of Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) located in Lucknow. Apart from HAL, the major production units in Lucknow include Tata Motors, Eveready Industries, Scooter India Limited. The processed product units include milk production, steel rolling units and LPG filling units.
Small and medium scale units in the city are located in the industrial areas of Chinhat, Aishbagh, Talkatora and Amausi. Chinhat is famous for its terracotta and porcelain products.
Chicken workmanship has its own identity
Lucknow’s chicken business is very famous. It is a small-scale industry, which is spread from house to house in the Chowk area. Both Chikan and Lucknowi Zardozi earn a lot of foreign exchange for the country. Chicken has always attracted fashion designers from Bollywood and abroad. Lucknow’s chicken has a different identity in the UP government’s One District One Product ie ODOP scheme.
Dussehri mango is special
Dussehri mango is grown in the nearby areas of Lucknow. It is one of the traditional produce here. Apart from this, melon is also liked here. The Malihabadi Dussehri mango here has got a special status from the Government of India. It is exported abroad. Asia’s first merchant brewery Mohan Meakins is located here. It was established in 1855.
Lucknow also has many higher education and research institutes of the country. Among them, King George’s Medical College (KGMU), SGPGI and Birbal Sahni Research Institute are prominent. The Council of Scientific and Industrial Research of India has four major laboratories – Central Drug Research Institute, Industrial Toxicology Research Center (CSIR), National Botany Research Institute (NBRI) and Central Institute of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants (CIMAP).
Lucknow has 6 universities, including Lucknow University, Uttar Pradesh Technical University (UPTU), Ram Manohar Lohia National Law University, Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar University, Amity University and Integral University. Among the management institutes is the Indian Institute of Management, Lucknow (IIM).
The freedom fighters of Lucknow district used to write the famous freedom fighter Ram Prasad Bismil of Lucknow, who was hanged by the British government in Kakori, under the surname Bismil. In Kumhrawan village of Lucknow district, 13 freedom fighters were given to the Indian independence movement, who carried forward the struggle for Indian independence by staying in Indian jails at different times, including Guru Prasad Bajpayee ‘Vaidya Ji’, Ramdev Azad, Phoolkali, Babulal, Jagdev Dixit. , Shyam Sundar Dixit ‘Munne’, Vishwanath Mishra ‘Doctor Sahib’, Badri Vishal Mishra, Ram Kumar Bajpayee, Bachan Shukla are prominent.
Kathak dance got its form here
The famous Indian dance Kathak found its form here. Wajid Ali Shah, the last Nawab of Awadh, was a great knower and lover of Kathak. Lachhu Maharaj, Achchan Maharaj, Shambhu Maharaj and Birju Maharaj have kept this tradition alive. Lucknow has also been the city of famous Ghazal singer Begum Akhtar. Lucknow’s Bhatkhande Sangeet Vishwavidyalaya is named after the great musician Pandit Vishnu Narayan Bhatkhande here. Lucknow has produced many noted singers, among whom are Naushad Ali, Talat Mehmood, Anoop Jalota and Baba Sehgal.
A distinct identity in Bollywood,
Lucknow has been an inspiration since the inception of the cinema industry. There are many screenwriters and lyricists from Awadh, such as Majrooh Sultanpuri, Kaifi Azmi, Javed Akhtar, Ali Raza, Bhagwati Charan Verma, Dr. Kumud Nagar, Dr. Achala Nagar, Wajahat Mirza, Amritlal Nagar, Ali Sardar Jaffrey and K. P. Saxena who have worked in Indian cinema. made rich with talent. Many famous films were made on Lucknow, such as Shashi Kapoor’s Junoon, Muzaffar Ali’s Umrao Jaan and Gaman, Satyajit Rai’s Chess Ke Khiladi were shot here.
Bahu Begum, Mehboob Ki Mehndi, Mere Huzoor, Fourteenth Ka Chand, Pakeezah, Main Meri Patni Aur Woh, Sahar, Anwar and many more Hindi movies are either made in Lucknow or have their background in Lucknow. Even in the film Gadar, the scenes of Pakistan are shot in Lucknow.
Awadh region has its own distinct Nawabi food style. There are different types of Biryani, Kebab, Korma, Nahari Kulche, Sheermal, Zarda, Rumali Roti and Varki Paratha and rotis etc., in which Kakori Kebab, Galvati Kebab, Patili Kebab, Boti Kebab, Ghutwan Kebab and Shami Kebab are prominent. Ram Aasare Halwai’s butter cream and Malai-Gillauri are famous, while Haji Murad Ali’s kebabs found at Akbari Gate are famous. At the end of the meal, the paan of Lucknow which has no match.
Kukrail Forest is a picnic spot. There is a sanctuary of alligators and tortoises here. It is located on Ring Road, near Indira Nagar in Lucknow. Apart from these, Rumi Darwaza, Chhatar Manzil, Elephant Park, Buddha Park, Lemon Park, Marine Drive and Indira Gandhi Planetarium are also worth visiting. Malihabad village is on the Lucknow-Hardoi highway, where Dussehri mangoes are world famous. Naimisharanya shrine is at some distance from here.
The procession of Tajiya is famous in Lucknow on Muharram Lucknow has
the largest Muslim population after Hindus. The major Hindu temples are Hanuman Setu Temple, Mankameshwar Temple, Hanuman Temple of Aliganj, Bhootnath Temple, Indiranagar, Chandrika Devi Temple, Naimisharanya Tirtha and Ramakrishna Math, Niralanagar. There are also many big and old mosques, among them Mound Wali Masjid, Imambara Masjid and Idgah are prominent. The cathedrals are Cathedral Church, Hazratganj, Indiranagar Church, St. Paul’s Church on Subhash Marg and Assembly of Believers Church. The Tajiya procession of Muharram has its own identity here. The special thing is that there are many Muslim artisans who make effigies of Ravana, while many Hindu families will be found making Taziye.
Traffic in Lucknow
Four highways originate from here – NH-24 (Delhi), NH-25 (Jhansi and Madhya Pradesh), NH-56 (Varanasi) and NH-24 (Bihar). By road, Lucknow is the main route from Delhi to Bihar and West Bengal and Northeast states. Agra Expressway and the under-construction Purvanchal Expressway have emerged as new options. This is the identity of Lucknow in rail traffic too. It is on the main route of Northern Railway, Northeast Railway. Apart from this, Chaudhary Charan Singh International Airport (Amausi Airport) is here. Now Lucknow Metro has also started.
The Lok Sabha seat of Lucknow is considered very important for political purposes. Union Defense Minister Rajnath Singh is an MP from here for two consecutive terms. He registered easy wins from here in 2014 and 2019.
Talking about history, from 1951-1967, the Congress Party hit its hat-trick here. After this, Lok Dal, Janata Dal and Congress maintained their dominance here alternately, but since 1991 this seat has become a strong stronghold of BJP. From 1991 to 2009, BJP’s veteran leader Atal Bihari Vajpayee won consecutively here. Lucknow MP Atal Bihari Vajpayee was the Prime Minister of India twice, from May 16, 1996 to June 1, 1996 and again from March 19, 1998 to May 22, 2004. Lalji Tandon from this seat in 2009 after Atal was away from politics. reached the Lok Sabha.
There are 5 assembly seats under Lucknow region, which include Lucknow East, Lucknow Central, Lucknow West, Lucknow North and Lucknow Cantt. The birthplace of
Atal Bihari Vajpayee, Vijayalakshmi Pandit, sister of India’s first Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Sarhaj Sheela Kaul of Nehru, Hemvati Nandan Bahuguna. Apart from these, Sheorajwati Nehru, Pulin Bihari Banerjee, BK Dhawan were Congress MPs, Anand Narayan Mulla won the elections in 1967.
In the anti-Congress wave of 1977, Hemvati Nandan Bahuguna won from here as a candidate of the Bharatiya Lok Dal, but in 1980 Sheila Kaul made the Congress return. In 1984 also she became an MP from here. In 1989, Mandhata Singh of Janata Dal captured here.